A. SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE A – SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of the significant accounting policies applied in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements follows.
Business and Basis of Presentation
Telkonet, Inc. (the “Company”, “Telkonet”), formed in 1999 and incorporated under the laws of the state of Utah, is the creator of the EcoSmart Platform of intelligent automation solutions designed to optimize energy efficiency, comfort and analytics in support of the emerging Internet of Things (“IoT”).
In 2007, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets of Smart Systems International (“SSI”), which was a provider of energy management products and solutions to customers in the United States and Canada and the precursor to the Company’s EcoSmart platform. The EcoSmart platform provides comprehensive savings, management reporting, analytics and virtual engineering of a customer’s portfolio and/or property’s room-by-room energy consumption. Telkonet has deployed more than a half million intelligent devices worldwide in properties within the hospitality, military, educational, healthcare and other commercial markets. The EcoSmart platform is rapidly being recognized as a leading solution for reducing energy consumption, operational costs and carbon footprints, and eliminating the need for new energy generation in these marketplaces – all whilst improving occupant comfort and convenience.
On March 28, 2017, the Company sold its wholly-owned subsidiary, EthoStream, LLC. Refer to Note P for further details.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Telkonet Communications, Inc., and EthoStream, LLC. The current year and prior year accounts of Ethostream LLC have been classified as held for sale on the consolidated balance sheet and as discontinued operations on the consolidated statement of operations and the consolidated statement of cash flows. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Unless otherwise noted, all financial information in the consolidated financial statement footnotes reflect the Company’s results from continuing operations.
Liquidity and Financial Condition
The Company reported net income of $3,746,378 for the year ended December 31, 2017, had a net loss from continuing operations of $3,496,741, had cash used in operating activities from continuing operations of $3,594,906, had an accumulated deficit of $119,724,656 and total current assets in excess of current liabilities from continuing operations of $10,162,776 as of December 31, 2017. Since inception, the Company’s primary sources of ongoing liquidity for operations have come through private and public offerings of equity securities, and the issuance of various debt instruments and asset-based lending.
On October 23, 2017, an amendment to the revolving credit facility with Heritage Bank of Commerce was executed extending the maturity date of the revolving credit facility to September 30, 2019, unless earlier accelerated under the terms of the agreement. Refer to Note G for further details. The outstanding balance was $682,211 and $1,062,129 as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and the remaining available borrowing capacity was approximately $202,000 and $107,000. As of December 31, 2017, the Company was in compliance with all financial covenants.
The Company intends to utilize net proceeds received from the EthoStream LLC sale to continue executing its strategic plan, which we believe will help us achieve steady sales growth.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments and related items, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and trade receivables. The Company places its cash and temporary cash investments with credit quality institutions. At times, such investments may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limit. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances. With respect to trade receivables, the Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial conditions and limits the amount of credit extended when deemed necessary. The Company provides credit to its customers primarily in the United States in the normal course of business. The Company routinely assesses the financial strength of its customers and, as a consequence, believes its trade receivables credit risk exposure is limited.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments purchased with an original maturity date of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Restricted Cash on Deposit
The restricted cash on deposit of $810,000 as of December 31, 2017 reflects $800,000 placed into an escrow account to support potential indemnification obligations associated with the sale of the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, EthoStream. The escrow amount, net of potential claims, will be fully released after an escrow period not to exceed 12 months from the transaction closing on March 29, 2017. Within two business days of receipt of written instructions, signed by an authorized representative of each of Buyer and the Seller, the Escrow Agent shall disburse the funds. On September 29, 2017, the Company received $100,000 from the escrow account for the portion of the escrow account set aside for net working capital adjustments. On December 29, 2017, the Company deposited $10,000 into a brokerage account for the purpose of purchasing Company stock.
Accounts receivable are uncollateralized customer obligations due under normal trade terms. The Company records allowances for doubtful accounts based on customer-specific analysis and general matters such as current assessment of past due balances and economic conditions. The Company writes off accounts receivable when they become uncollectible. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $22,173 and $34,573 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Management identifies a delinquent customer based upon the delinquent payment status of an outstanding invoice, generally greater than 30 days past due date. The delinquent account designation does not trigger an accounting transaction until such time the account is deemed uncollectible. The allowance for doubtful accounts is determined by examining the reserve history and any outstanding invoices that are over 30 days past due as of the end of the reporting period. Accounts are deemed uncollectible on a case-by-case basis, at management’s discretion based upon an examination of the communication with the delinquent customer and payment history. Typically, accounts are only escalated to “uncollectible” status after multiple attempts at collection have proven unsuccessful.
The allowance for doubtful accounts for the years ended December 31 are as follows:
Inventories consist of thermostats, sensors and controllers for Telkonet’s EcoSmart product platform. These inventories are purchased for resale and do not include manufacturing labor and overhead. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value determined by the first in, first out (FIFO) method. The Company’s inventories are subject to technological obsolescence. Management evaluates the net realizable value of its inventories on a quarterly basis and when it is determined that the Company’s carrying cost of such excess and obsolete inventories cannot be recovered in full, a charge is taken against income for the difference between the carrying cost and the estimated realizable amount. The charge (benefit) taken against income was approximately $111,400 and $(18,900) for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Property and Equipment
In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ASC 360 “Property Plant and Equipment”, property and equipment is stated at cost and is depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives range from 2 to 10 years.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company accounts for the fair value of financial instruments in accordance with ASC 820, which defines fair value for accounting purposes, established a framework for measuring fair value and expanded disclosure requirements regarding fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as an exit price, which is the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid upon transfer of a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The degree of judgment utilized in measuring the fair value of assets and liabilities generally correlates to the level of pricing observability. Financial assets and liabilities with readily available, actively quoted prices or for which fair value can be measured from actively quoted prices in active markets generally have more pricing observability and require less judgment in measuring fair value. Conversely, financial assets and liabilities that are rarely traded or not quoted have less price observability and are generally measured at fair value using valuation models that require more judgment. These valuation techniques involve some level of management estimation and judgment, the degree of which is dependent on the price transparency of the asset, liability or market and the nature of the asset or liability. The Company categorizes financial assets and liabilities that are recurring, at fair value into a three-level hierarchy in accordance with these provisions.
The Company’s financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash on deposit, accounts receivable, accounts payable, line of credit, related party payable, and certain accrued liabilities. The carrying amounts of these assets and liabilities approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments (Level 1 instruments), except for the line of credit and the related party payable. The carrying amount of the line of credit and related party payable approximates fair value due to the interest rate and terms approximating those available to the Company for similar obligations (Level 2 instruments).
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable in accordance with ASC 360-10. Recoverability is measured by comparison of the carrying amount to the future net cash flows which the assets are expected to generate. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds their fair value. Based on the annual assessment for impairment performed during 2017 and 2016, no impairment was recorded.
Income (Loss) per Common Share
The Company computes earnings per share under ASC 260-10, “Earnings Per Share”. Basic net income (loss) per common share is computed using the treasury stock method, which assumes that the proceeds to be received on exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants are used to repurchase shares of the Company at the average market price of the common shares for the year. Dilutive common stock equivalents consist of shares issuable upon the exercise of the Company's outstanding stock options and warrants. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were 4,626,474 and 3,132,725 shares of common stock underlying options and warrants excluded due to these instruments being anti-dilutive, respectively.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States of America (U.S.) generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates are used when accounting for items and matters such as revenue recognition and allowances for uncollectible accounts receivable, inventory obsolescence, depreciation and amortization, long-lived assets, taxes and related valuation allowance, income tax provisions, stock-based compensation, and contingencies. The Company believes that the estimates, judgments and assumptions are reasonable, based on information available at the time they are made. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740-10 “Income Taxes.” Under this method, deferred income taxes (when required) are provided based on the difference between the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating losses at the statutory rates enacted for future periods. The Company has a policy of establishing a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that the Company will not realize the benefits of its deferred income tax assets in the future.
The Company adopted ASC 740-10-25, which prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. ASC 740-10-25 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, treatment of interest and penalties, and disclosure of such positions.
For revenue from product sales, the Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 605-10, “Revenue Recognition” and ASC 605-10-S99 guidelines that require that four basic criteria must be met before revenue can be recognized: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred; (3) the selling price is fixed and determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. Determination of criteria (3) and (4) are based on management’s judgments regarding the fixed nature of the selling prices of the products delivered and the collectability of those amounts. Assuming all conditions for revenue recognition have been satisfied, product revenue is recognized when products are shipped and installation revenue is recognized when the services are completed. Provisions for discounts and rebates to customers, estimated returns and allowances, and other adjustments are provided for in the same period the related sales are recorded. The guidelines also address the accounting for arrangements that may involve the delivery or performance of multiple products, services and/or rights to use assets.
Multiple-Element Arrangements (“MEAs”): The Company accounts for contracts that have both product and installation under the MEAs guidance in ASC 605-25. Arrangements under such contracts may include multiple deliverables consisting of a combination of equipment and services. The deliverables included in the MEAs are separated into more than one unit of accounting when (i) the delivered equipment has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis, and (ii) delivery of the undelivered service element(s) is probable and substantially in the Company’s control. Arrangement consideration is then allocated to each unit, delivered or undelivered, based on the relative selling price of each unit of accounting based first on vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) if it exists, second on third-party evidence (“TPE”) if it exists and on estimated selling price (“ESP”) if neither VSOE or TPE exist.
Under the estimated selling price method, revenue is recognized in MEAs based on estimated selling prices for all of the elements in the arrangement, assuming all other conditions for revenue recognition have been satisfied. To determine the estimated selling price, the Company establishes the selling price for its products and installation services using the Company’s established pricing guidelines, and the proceeds are allocated between the elements and the arrangement.
When MEAs include an element of customer training, the Company determined it is not essential to the functionality, efficiency or effectiveness of the MEA due to its perfunctory nature in relation to the entire arrangement. Therefore the Company has concluded that this obligation is inconsequential and perfunctory. As such, for MEAs that include training, customer acceptance of said training is not deemed necessary in order to record the related revenue, but is recorded when the installation deliverable is fulfilled. Historically, training revenues have not been significant.
The Company provides call center support services to properties installed by the Company. The Company receives monthly service fees from such properties for its services. The Company recognizes the service fee ratably over the term of the contract. The prices for these services are fixed and determinable prior to delivery of the service. The fair value of these services is known due to objective and reliable evidence from standalone executed contracts. The Company reports such revenues as recurring revenues. Deferred revenue includes deferrals for the monthly support service fees. Long-term deferred revenue represents support service fees to be earned or provided beginning after December 31, 2018. Revenue recognized that has not yet been billed to a customer results in an asset as of the end of the period. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, there was $261,800 and $214,821 recorded within accounts receivable, respectively, related to revenue recognized that has not yet been billed.
Unless provided with a resale or tax exemption certificate, the Company assesses and collects sales tax on sales transactions and records the amount as a liability. It is recognized as a liability until remitted to the applicable state. Total revenues do not include sales tax as the Company is considered a pass through conduit for collecting and remitting sales taxes.
Guarantees and Product Warranties
The Company records a liability for potential warranty claims in cost of sales at the time of sale. The amount of the liability is based on the trend in the historical ratio of claims to sales, the historical length of time between the sale and resulting warranty claim, new product introductions and other factors. The products sold are generally covered by a warranty for a period of one year. In the event the Company determines that its current or future product repair and replacement costs exceed its estimates, an adjustment to these reserves would be charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company experienced returns of approximately 1% to 3% of material’s included in cost of sales. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded warranty liabilities in the amount of $59,892 and $95,540, respectively, using this experience factor range.
Product warranties for the years ended December 31 is as follows:
The Company follows the policy of charging the costs of advertising to expenses as incurred. The Company incurred $33,520 and $31,573 in advertising costs during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Research and Development
The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the ASC 730-10, “Research and Development”. Under ASC 730-10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and development costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved. Company-sponsored research and development costs related to both present and future products are expensed in the period incurred. Total expenditures on research and product development for 2017 and 2016 were $1,770,597 and $1,658,640, respectively.
The Company accounts for stock-based awards in accordance with ASC 718-10, “Share-Based Compensation”, which requires a fair value measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to the Company’s employees and directors, including employee stock options and restricted stock awards. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes valuation model. This model requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions including, among other things, estimates regarding the length of time an employee will hold vested stock options before exercising them, the estimated volatility of the Company’s common stock price and the number of options that will be forfeited prior to vesting. The fair value is then amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which is generally the vesting period. Changes in these estimates and assumptions can materially affect the determination of the fair value of stock-based compensation and consequently, the related amount recognized in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
The expected term of the options represents the estimated period of time until exercise and is based on historical experience of similar awards, giving consideration to the contractual terms, vesting schedules and expectations of future employee behavior. For 2017 and prior years, expected stock price volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Company’s stock for the related expected term.
Stock-based compensation expense in connection with options granted to employees for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $322,888 and $55,050, respectively.
Deferred Lease Liability
Rent expense is recorded on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Rent escalations and rent abatement periods during the term of the lease create a deferred lease liability which represents the excess of cumulative rent expense recorded to date over the actual rent paid to date.
Certain amounts on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2016 and statements of cash flows have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. The Company reclassified $106,743 from current assets of discontinued operations to cash and cash equivalents for certain EthoStream assets not sold to DCI on March 29, 2017. The Company reclassified $150,936 from current liabilities of discontinued operations to accrued liabilities and expenses for certain EthoStream liabilities not assumed by DCI on March 29, 2017. The reclassifications were not material and had no effect on the Company’s total current assets, current liabilities or stockholders’ equity as of December 31, 2016.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef